Water-harvesting earthworks are landscape features designed to direct and capture the flow of water in order to maximize infiltration into the soil. Think: Slow, Spread, Sink. Earthwork strategies include: basins, berms, swales and terraces. Such features seek to mimic the natural meander of water in riparian areas, while creating unique micro-climates for plant and animal life.
Bartens, J., Day, S., et al. (2008). “Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management?” (PDF) (10 pp, 972K, About PDF) Journal of Environmental Quality 37:2048–2057.
Bartens, J., Wiseman, P., and Smiley, E. (2010). “Stability of landscape trees in engineered and conventional urban soil mixes.” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 9(4): 333-338.
City of Logan. (2011). Green Infrastructure & Stormwater Management: Case Study. American Society of Landscape Architects, Case No. 346.
Davis, A., Stagge, J., et al. (2011). “Hydraulic performance of grass swales for managing highway runoff.” Water Research, 46(20): 6775-6786.
Davis, A.P., Traver, R.G., Hunt, W.F., Brown, R.A., Lee, R. and Olszewski, J.M. (2011). “Hydrologic Performance of Bioretention Stormwater Control Measures.” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA 17(5): 604–614.
Houdeschel, C.D., Hultine, K.R., Johnson, N.C. & Pomeroy, C.A., (2015). Evaluation of three vegetation treatments in bioretention gardens in a semi-arid climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 135: 62-72.
Houdeshel, C.D. & Pomeroy, C.A. (2014). Storm-water bioinfiltration as no-irrigation landscaping alternative in semiarid climates. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, 140(2).
Houdeshel, C.D., Pomeroy, C.A., & Hultine, K.R. (2012). Bioretention Design for Xeric Climates Based on Ecological Principles. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 48(6), 1178-1190.
Kazemi, F., Beecham, S., and Gibbs, J. (2011). “Streetscape biodiversity and the role of bioretention swales in an Australian urban environment.” Landscape and Urban Planning 101(2): 139-148.
McPherson, G., Simpson, J., et al. (2005). “Municipal Forest Benefits and Costs in Five US Cities.” (PDF) (6 pp, 266K, About PDF) Journal of Forestry 103(8).
Nowak, D., Crane, D., and Stevens, J. (2006). “Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States.” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 4(3-4) 115-123.
Ray, A., A. Selvakumar, and A. N. Tafuri. (2006). “Removal of Selected Pollutants from Aqueous Media by Hardwood Mulch.” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 132(2):89-96.
Shuster, W. D., R. Gehring, and J. Gerken. (2007). “Prospects for Enhanced Groundwater Recharge via Infiltration of Urban Stormwater Runoff: A Case Study.” Mark Anderson-Wilk (ed.), Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Soil and Water Conservation Society, 62(3): 129-137.
Stander, E., M. Borst, T. O’Connor, and A. Rowe. (2010). “The Effects of Rain Garden Size on Hydrologic Performance.” In: Proceedings, World Environmental & Water Resources Congress 2010, Challenges of Change, Providence, RI, May 16 – 20, 2010. Environmental & Water Resources Institute (EWRI) of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, 3018.
Stander, E., and Borst, M. (2008). “Promoting Nitrate Removal in Rain Gardens.” New Jersey Flows. New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, IX (II):5.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Review and Synthesis of the Scientific Evidence. Office of Research and Development, EPA/600/R-14/475F.
University of Maryland – UMD’s bioretention lab researches the performance of rain gardens and swales in a variety of contexts.
Watershed Management Group. Green Infrastructure for Southwestern Neighborhoods. Version 1.2
Xiao, Q. and McPherson E. (2011). “Performance of engineered soil and trees in a parking lot bioswales.” (PDF). Urban Water Journal 8(4): 241–253.